Apéritifs Apéros Aperitivi Aperitivos απεριτίφ
We were about to have dinner in a local restaurant and thought that an
apéritif would be a good idea. We were given an extensive and
impressive menu of gin and tonics. This completely confused me and,
although I like gin and tonic, I could not decide what to drink. At the
time I was not sure why but it did get me thinking about apéritifs.
Apéritif is a French word derived from the Latin verb aperire, which
means "to open". Although we tend to think of apéritifs as “something
to do while we decide what to eat and while we wait for our order to be
taken”, they do have two important roles. The first is to stimulate the
appetite and taste buds and the second is to get the party going.
With that in mind, what are the best and worst drinks to have as an
apéritif and what drinks are not suitable? Apéritifs can be sweet or
dry, although in this country they tend to be on the drier side. They
can be wine-strength or fortified wine-strength. What should be avoided
are spirits – hence my problem with the gin and tonic menu!
At the end of the day, it depends on what you like, and whether you
think the food that is going to follow is worth tasting.
Best apéritif drinks
Worst apéritif drinks
Not so good apéritif drinks that are traditionally drunk as
White wine – dry and sweet
wines (Pineau des Charentes, Floc and Pommeau)
I have just been reading in the August edition of Decanter Magazine (no,
that is not an error – it came out in June!), about the demise of
grower-producers in Champagne. These are people who grow their own
grapes and make their own Champagne. The argument of the article is
that, although there are currently over 4000 grower–producers, the
number is falling and eventually there will not be any.
In the piece, a number of individuals in Champagne are quoted, but these
mostly seem to have interests in the big houses, so they would say the
days of the grower–producer are numbered, wouldn’t they? Whether or not
the number is decreasing and whether or not the trend will continue it
is worth considering the reasons given for this and to consider whether
or not it matters.
The price of grapes in Champagne is so high that a grower can make a
living without having to go to the inconvenience of making and selling
his own wine.
Perhaps, but what happens if the big players start to behave like the
supermarkets and reduce the price they will pay.
In the export markets, the price of Champagne is so sensitive that the
small producers cannot compete.
The evidence given for this is the cost cutting and “special offers”
from the supermarkets. Two comments: (1) the supermarkets generally
sell grande marque champagnes and these probably start at 30% more than
an equivalent grower Champagne so the sensitivity only comes after the
prices have been bumped up and (2) there is at least anecdotal evidence
that people will buy a more expensive brand and buy on price alone.
Big houses can hold reserve stocks and blend to produce consistency.
The quality of wines from small grower–producers is more dependent on
This issue of blending for consistency is at the crux of the difference
between the grande marque houses and the grower-producer. Is it better
to have a consistent house style year in year out or to produce a wine
that reflects the season and the terroir?
French inheritance laws, which require an equal distribution of
inheritance assets between siblings, coupled with 45% inheritance tax on
assets worth more than €1.8M.
With the average value of a Champagne vineyard being a staggering €1.8M
per hectare it is not surprising that grower-producer businesses are
being sold-off and broken-up.
Small grower-producers are more at risk from weather events than the
This sounds logical, but it equally applies to growers who sell their
grapes to others to make the wine.
Assuming that this decline in the number of grower-producers is
happening and is going to continue, does it matter? I think it does for
Grower-producers make Champagne that is more artisan and individual than
the grande marque houses – often expressing terroir better.
Grower-producer Champagnes are often better value for money than grande
marque Champagne (because they do not spend so much on marketing).
if there were no grower-producers, virtually all Champagne would be sold
through supermarkets, resulting in a concentration of the retail market
and even less choice.
What can we do about it? When buying Champagne, look for the “RM” (récoltant-manipulative)
designation on bottles (usually in very small letters) as opposed to
Why is pub food so unhealthy?
I have a big problem. By 10th August I have to lose 1½ stone
(or, more accurately, I have to lose 4 inches from my waist) and,
because we have been going on Ramblers walks regularly, I have been
eating a fair number of pub lunches. Unfortunately, most pub food is
extremely unhealthy and cause you to put on all the weight taken off on
the walk. The simplest way to sum up most pub food is double
carbohydrate. Typical of this formula is:
Batter AND Chips
Pastry (pie) AND Potato
Potatoes AND Bread
Pasta (always lasagne) AND Bread or chips
Whilst, I would not wish to deprive chip addicts of their daily fix, I
do think that pubs should offer healthy options. They might do quite
A week or so ago a shopper at a farm shop was being interviewed…
Interviewer: “Do you try to eat healthily?”
Shopper: “Yes, I always read the label before I buy.”
There are two issues relating to this short exchange.
The healthiest food is unprocessed and does not come with a label.
Does labelling help that much in guiding us to the most healthy food?
Some people have great faith in the power of labelling. The question is
whether it helps that much.
Labelling has several objectives:
1 To inform the consumer
about the product – specifically about the ingredients of the product,
it’s energy value, etc. These are meant to help with making healthy
choices. The problems are: understanding what the values mean, making a
choice involving a number of different measures (is it better to have
more sugar and less salt or vice versa?), knowing what the
different chemicals and E-numbers mean or do to you and, oh yes, being
able to read, what is sometimes, very small print. Also, not all
products show this information – including processed food.
2 To provide warnings
about allergies. There are two problems here relating to wine and
drink. Firstly, for all practical purposes it can be assumed that all
wines contain sulphur but it has to be listed as something that might
cause allergies. Almost no one is allergic to sulphur (although some
people will say it causes headaches – could not possibly be the
alcohol(!)). Secondly, some wines (and beers) do contain things that do
cause an allergic reaction. My mother could not drink Burgundy, I have
trouble with expensive Italian red wines beginning with “B”. There is
something in a particular Cairanne that gives me a headache (see
below). No warning on the bottle!
3 To provide the supply
chain and authorities with an “audit” of the production. For example,
in the Cairanne which gives me a headache, the label says “mis en
bouteille par F71084A pour J. Boulard 71570 France”. Presumably someone
in authority knows who or what F71084A is but not even Google will
enlighten the consumer.
4 To advise the consumer
about the life of a product. The problem here is whether a date on the
label is meaningful. I could write about chutney and the random rules
about setting “use-by” dates on jars of chutney. Instead here is a
glimpse of bureaucratic randomness. The local trading standards people
came into Heaton Wines and started inspecting sell-by dates. None on
wine, but that is ok. Some on UK-produced cider. All in date, so ok.
No date on Normandy cider. “Cider has to have a sell-by date,” they
said. “Not Normandy cider,” I said. They went away.
5 To brand the product.
The problem here is that people change the brands. Some time ago I
wrote about a bottle of Cairanne bought from Waitrose. Last week, I
bought what I thought was a different Cairanne also from Waitrose. In
fact, it was the same; just the label was different. Still contained
the same headache – nothing on the label warning about that.
In conclusion, buy food that has no label; when buying wine do not pay
too much attention to the label. Oh, there is a sixth objective of
labelling: “To fuel state bureaucracy”
When is something in season?
February is a tricky month for acquiring (1) fresh, (2) local and (3)
in-season fruit and vegetables. The shops appear to be full of produce
that meet some of these three categories – but very few that meet all of
them. Where they do meet them all, it is usually found that the season
is being stretched by use of greenhouses and variety selection and that
the produce has no flavour (you can buy local, fresh tomatoes but they
do not taste of anything).
Some years ago “The World’s Favourite Airline”(!!!), served me dinner on
the way back from Rome to London. The dessert, according to the menu
card, was “Seasonal Fresh Fruit”. It consisted of: half a strawberry
with the green bit left on (I hate that), a couple of grapes and a slice
of melon. Apart from the dish being inadequate by any standard, I was
compelled to ask the steward which season was represented by these
samples of fruit. The answer was that “the whole world has one season”
and everything is in season. I would say that different parts of the
world have different seasons at any one time. I would also say that
“seasonal fresh fruit” implies that all the fruit comes from one season
rather than anywhere in the World.
Whilst some… many… most foods have distinct seasons some do not and are
freshly available all the year round. Examples of this are beef, pork,
mutton and most fish. Others are much more restricted. Examples are
fruit, vegetables and specific types of lamb.
One further observation, watch the marketing. We recently (in January)
came across “Jersey Royals” – in January? – and “New season’s
beetroot”. We have been harvesting beetroot since August. How can
January be “new season” for beetroot?
On a happy thought, looking forward to English asparagus.
When is a pub not a pub?
We have been doing a bit of walking with Romsey Ramblers and these walks
inevitably take us to pubs for lunch. This is giving us a wider
perspective of the pub population than we have had before and what we
observe is that many pubs are no longer looking or feeling like pubs.
They are often like sad representations of restaurants. That said,
there are some pubs that are traditional, welcoming but still manage to
offer good food at reasonable prices – indeed there are some pubs from
which I have had great difficulty in prising myself in order to complete
the walk! The question is how can you identify the good ones? Perhaps
the following might help.
The tables are laid up with beer mats
The tables are laid up with place mats, cutlery, glasses
A pub tends to be run by someone known as the “landlord”
A restaurant tends to be run by a manager
When you wish to visit a pub, you just walk in
When you want to visit a restaurant, you are more likely to need
to book in advance.
When you walk in you choose a table and sit at it
You are greeted by a waitress / waiter and shown to the table
they want you to sit at
When you want a drink, you go to the bar and buy one
You ask the waitress / waiter to bring you one
You pay as you go
You pay at the end of the meal
The food tends to be more basic
The food tends to be more elaborate
You pay the amounts on the price list
You get charged a service charge
The trouble is that more and more pubs are trying to behave like the
right-hand column and, sadly, they are not very good at it. Without
naming any culprits, I can think of one New Forest pub that describes
itself (on its website) as a family run, unspoilt, traditional 18th
Century Country Pub. I cannot argue about the 18th century.
It may be family run but it appears to be in a group with other pubs.
What I do take issue with is the “unspoilt traditional”. On the other
hand, I can think of a pub just outside Lymington that, as soon as you
walk in, it wraps you in a traditional pub atmosphere – and they still
manage to do cracking good food.
One other criticism of the New Forest pub cited above is on their menu.
In the section headed, “OLD ENGLISH CLASSICS”, appears, “Baked Tandoori
Chicken Breast with Saffron Quinoa, Homemade Chapati and Onion Bhaji”.
Finally, as it is the new year, I thought I would name the best pub we
visited in 2017. By a short whisker, the winner is: The Talbot Inn in
Berwick St. John. I had great trouble leaving that one.
Does breed matter?
having a discussion with a friend about whether breed of animal matters
when it comes to the flavour of the meat. My friend argues that it is
the food the animal is fed (he used to work for an animal feed company),
the husbandry of the animal and the butchery, including the length of
time and way that the meat is hung, that matter the most. I have even
heard a butcher arguing the same when he had run out of South Devon beef
and was trying to sell us something else.
Although I have not tasted very many beef varieties, my experience is
that I have noticed a significant difference and improvement of taste
with some varieties. I would cite South Devon, Hereford and Longhorn as
being particularly tasty. All you have to do is show a steak from these
animals to a griddle to get an alluring and enticing aroma not given off
by most steaks on offer in the shops.
One of the most common “premium” beef variety is Aberdeen Angus. It is
all right but, if you compare an Aberdeen Angus steak with a Longhorn or
a South Devon steak, there is no comparison.
The difference in flavour between breeds is perhaps more striking for
lamb than it is for beef. Compare a Soay (almost venison-like meat)
with a Dorset Pole (sweet and juicy) and the difference could not be
greater. I mention this to support my assertion about beef.
It also applies to pork. Compare a Gloucester Old Spot with the pink
jobs most butchers sell.
Assuming, then, that my assertion about the effect of variety of taste
is correct, the question, then, is what should or can we do about it?
Here are two responses to this question…
Take the effort to seek out suppliers of better varieties of meat. Some
farm shops do specialise in better varieties.
Always to ask the butcher, farmer or restaurant from what breed of
animal the meat comes. Some will know the answer and will be pleased to
tell you, others will not have a clue. If enough people ask, then
perhaps they might do more to source their meat from flavoursome
Here are some additional comments:
Many (most?) breeds of animal are bred for commercial gain rather than
The comments about breed also apply to poultry (how often do you see the
breed of a chicken on the
game and even vegetables which is one reason why people have allotments!
We accept that grape variety impacts wine and often choose a wine on the
basis of grape variety. Why do we not apply our wine buying principles
Having sorted out breed / variety, we can go on to think about feeding,
husbandry and butchery.
A Longhorn cow – delicious!
Black and white job – not delicious!
What produce define Hampshire?
In France, different regions are defined by the food they produce, the
wines (or other drinks) they make and by their cooking. Examples
include: Normandy is known for its dairy products such as cheese and
shell fish and cider; Gascony is known for all things duck and goose;
Alsace for sauerkraut, charcuterie and tarts.
The sense of gastronomic identity is re-enforced by the Appellation
Contrôlée system - or Appellation d'origine protégée (AOP) system as it
The question posed is what produce define Hampshire? Or are there any
produce that define Hampshire?
Before answering these questions, it can be noted that there are no
Hampshire produce that have protected status – at any level. This,
however, does not mean that there are no produce that do characterise
Hampshire. I would site in particular:
In addition to these, whether or not they have protected status, there I
would suggest that the following could be considered for local branding…
River Itchen watercress
New Forest venison
River Itchen trout
New Forest heather honey
Hampshire pork (from the Hampshire pig)
River Test trout
Test Valley water
Hampshire Down lamb from Hampshire Down sheep grown in
River Test smoked trout
There are some produce that I have not included which look like prime
candidates for inclusion in the list. The most obvious of these is
wine. I have not included it because some of the wine growers, are
simply grape farmers and sell their grapes to other wine producers to be
made into wine. Conversely, some wine producers buy in grapes from
other producers. I would not imply that all engage in this trade, but,
without extensive research, it makes it difficult to have a judgement
I am sure there are many other candidates.
It would be nice if the authorities would start to promote Hampshire
Does taste matter?
by “taste” I mean “flavour”!
the biggest surprises of being in Greece was that tomatoes tasted of
(guess what?) tomatoes. Of course it should not have been a surprise
but having been fed on a diet of flavourless tomatoes for so long I
forgot what good tomatoes tasted like. I was reminded of a
presentation given by the head tomato buyer for Sainsbury’s.
presentation she listed the buying criteria she uses for selecting
tomatoes. They were something like:
skins (to avoid bruising and breakage).
asked, “what about flavour”. “No,” she said, “that does not matter.”
similar tale unfolded (!) when I visited the Sparsholt College pig unit
during an open day. They had a sign up showing 10 objectives for
selecting pigs for breeding. I cannot remember them all but they were
no mention of flavour so I asked the guide why flavour does not appear
on the list. I was told that it does not matter.
seriously of the view that flavour does matter – and there is research
that shows this.
Flavour matters because…
stimulates the digestive juices which improves the digestion and enables
us to absorb the nutrients better.
flavours encourage our appetites and entice us to eat healthily.
flavours give a feeling of pleasure and encourage us to enjoy the food.
Generally, good tastes draw us to good healthy food and bad tastes warn
us about potential poisons.
comments should persuade us to seek out and buy tasty wholesome produce
rather than accepting bland flavourless food. There is, however, an
Historically (when I was a boy) there was a general view that British
meat had masses of flavour but French meat was generally tasteless. The
result of the second half of this was that the French developed
wonderful sauces to compensate for their tasteless meat; hence the
reputation of French cooking.
Perhaps with the blandness of so many supermarket produce, our culinary
skills will develop, rather than letting our taste buds be seduced by
the artificial stimulants of sugar and salt.
that lovely time of year when fresh English asparagus is in season and
in the shops. Curiously, however, the asparagus sold in Romsey’s one
greengrocer was grown in Essex. I say “curiously” because it is
rumoured that England’s largest asparagus grower is less than two miles
from Romsey! Does it really matter that our asparagus has to be shipped
150 miles across the country? For several reasons I think it does…
It will never be as fresh as asparagus that is grown locally.
It can be assumed that there is a significant supply chain
involved in getting the asparagus to Romsey – probably local
distribution to a central market (Covent Garden), regional wholesaler,
local wholesaler, distribution to shop. All these parties need to take
a slice of the selling price, thus increasing what we have to pay.
This is most important
– the local producer is isolated from the local community. This means
that it would be difficult for him to attract local labour to pick the
produce and he is forced to employ imported labour which might not be
available after Brexit. If his produce were sold locally then maybe he
could find local people to do the harvesting. I think that any argument
that says that local pickers are not available, can be challenged
because the John Lewis Partnership seems to have no problem attracting
apple pickers at Leckford – indeed, it is difficult to get selected to
help with the harvest.
Local produce is one of the things that defines a local region.
The French have got this down to a tee. In and around Romsey there are
produce that are recognisable as local (for example Test Valley trout),
but the process could be taken further. This would benefit tourism and
the community in general.
criticised the asparagus supply chain, there are worse! Garlic in
Romsey shops mostly comes from Spain (not bad, but could be better) but
some comes from China! Why? What possible reason is there for
importing garlic from 5000 miles away – especially as some recent
reports suggest that garlic from China is contaminated? When it is in
season, surely the best solution is to buy garlic from the Isle of
Weight or other local producers?
How can this be?
recently bought a bottle of wine from a local supermarket. Pretty
label; wire netting (presumably to keep something in); on special
discount. The wine was Castillo La Paz, Tempranillo Syrah. That is not
important. What is important is that it had two awards: Silver in 2015
from IWSC and Commended from Decanter. Incidentally, “Commended” means
“also ran”. In addition it is recommended by The Guardian. Apart from
awards and recommendations, also important is the quality of the wine.
opened the wine and poured a glass (an ISO tasting glass), I smelled the
wine. I got a waft of red wine aromas (black fruit, chocolate etc)
Good! However, after a second that was gone. In the mouth – nothing.
No nasty cork tastes – absolutely nothing at all. The wine was not
good. In fact it was very poor. Designed for people who do not like
question, then, is how come such a bad wine could receive two awards?
Without making any aspersions, there could be several explanations:
The wine could have changed since 2015 when the awards were
When I tasted it, the wine might have been going through a closed
period (probably related to the phase of the moon).
The organisations making the awards either employ people who have
little sense of what is a good wine, or the tasters were under so much
pressure to taste the quantity of wines needing assessment, that their
sense of taste had been blown away. The British competition holder
tasters each have to assess more wines than do the French competition
That the other wines in this wine’s category were so bad that
this wine seemed really good.
That at the tasting the wine had been opened two days earlier and
allowed to breath.
That IWSC and Decanter allowed commercial considerations to
affect their assessment of the wine. After all they make money out of
(1) having wines submitted for assessment and (2) by selling franchising
material for wines that win awards. Would it be incredulous to ask
whether a large supermarket would be a valued and special client for
this organisation and would need to be treated specially? How could
that be possible?
is, do not trust medal awards, particularly from British competition
organisers, to guide you to good wines.
I looked up the wine on the retailers web site and got:
Error 500. Sorry, we can't take you to that page at the moment
Says it all really!
supermarket that sells the wine says: “Grown in Don Quixote's homeland,
the old vines from Castillo La Paz thrive in red-brown sandy clay, rich
in limestone and chalk. The clean and dry atmosphere creates optimum
growing conditions for these ancient vines to produce wine of deep
colour with concentrated berry flavours. A superb example of Tempranillo
at its best.” And “21 out of 33 customers would recommend this product
to a friend.”. I hope none of the 21 are friends of mine!
leaving the bottle open for two days, the wine actually turned out quite
nice. Reasonable amount of aroma and taste. Smooth and well rounded.
Shame there were not instructions on the label saying “Open, leave
standing for two days and then pour and drink.”
producer does not even list the wine on his web site. Must be a special
for the supermarket!
Innovation or perfection
very excited when I recently read that plantings of Chilean Merlot had
fallen by 20% over the past decade. Research suggests that this report
is factually inaccurate but, in the true spirit of modern journalism,
why let the facts get in the way of a good story?
story did get me thinking about wine and fashion – particularly as so
much of the wine industry is owned by the fashion industry.
is a great temptation by wine producers to follow fashions and to
produce wines that are in vogue. The problem is that the timescales of
fashions and wine production are incompatible. A particular wine may be
in fashion for 2 or 3 years. Wine timescales may be measured in
generations – that can be the time for a vine to become fully productive
of high quality grapes. There have over the years been reports of wine
producers in less stringently controlled regions grubbing up less
fashionable vine varieties and replacing them with the current fad. The
problem is that, by the time the new vines become productive, the
fashion has changed.
said, there are changes that can be made fairly quickly – for example
altering the amount of oak in a wine. Even doing this may not be
possible or desirable. I am reminded of a Chablis producer who tried to
sell us oaked Chablis. I asked why they produced oaked Chablis when the
unoaked one was typical and delicious. I was told, “Because the English
drink more oaked Chardonnay than any other wine.” (It was a few years
ago.) The problem was that the oaked Chardonnay being drunk by the
English was mass produced, usually in Australia and cost £5-7 a bottle
and the oaked Chablis would have cost £12+ per bottle – and, because of
the scale of production could never be less than that.
then, that wine producers will have the greatest of difficulty chasing
trends what can they do to stay in the market? Apart from spending
buckets of money on marketing and brand building, the answer, I think,
was illustrated to me when I went to a number of tastings from New World
and Old World producers. When asked what were the main objectives of
the producers the answers inevitably were: from the New World producers:
“To innovate”; from the Old World producers: “To perfect our wines.”
that perfection does not carry the same magic as innovation.
Christmas I heard a programme on the wireless about gin and its effect
on society in the 18th century at the time of Hogarth’s
famous Gin Lane picture. As I was listening to the appalling
descriptions of affects of gin on family life, I started to reflect on
the rise in popularity of gin at the current time.
a gin resurgence taking place? Just how much has the market for gin
grown. Will it last?
is happening has to be a matter of speculation. It could be due to a
revival in cocktail drinking but that would not explain why gin now.
After all, in the past few years there have been fads in tequila, vodka,
whisky and beer. It could be that gin making is traditional in England
– at least since it was brought over from Holland by William of
Orange(?). It could be that dubbing down of big brand gins has opened
up a window for artisan producers. If may be that, in a globalised
drinks industry, we crave artisan products. It may be that barriers to
entry are not too large – you do not need to be a very large operation
to produce to a high value output.
scale of growth of gin distillation in England seems substantial. The
number of distilleries in England has grown from 23 in 2010 to 91 in
2015. It can be assumed that most of these are producing gin. At the
end of 2015 England had only 18 less distilleries than Scotland. In
2010, England had only 30% of the number of distilleries in Scotland.
Although there is obviously growth in gin production in England, this
must be put in the context that in the UK gin consumption is only 30%
that of vodka, 25% that of Whisky and about the same as that of rum.
for the question of whether the gin revival will last. Firstly let me
say that I enthusiastically welcome the growth in choice of gins –
particularly the aspect of local. My suspicion however is that it is a
fad that will diminish, probably in less than 5 years. Like so many of
the good things in life, it is possible that the big companies will
start to take over the new entrants and this could be followed by a
rationalisation. As an alternative viewpoint (and this is an advantage
of gin), we could see more and more innovations in the flavours of gin
with, perhaps, more gins produced for specific types of cocktail. The
possibilities are endless.
Perhaps everybody will become so depressed with the state of the world
(I am not incidentally) that we shall return to Hogarth’s day and use
gin as a release from everyday life!
What makes a menu stand
putting together the programme for the next few dinners my mind has been
occupied in trying to understand what makes a really top class dinner
menu. This has led me to study and, as a result, slobber over the menus
from some of the top (3 Michelin star) restaurants in France. Just to
put this into context, I was looking at menus costing from €150 to €450
per person – excluding wine.
results are (I think) rather strange. Firstly, very few placed emphasis
on top (priced?) ingredients such as foie gras, lobster, turbot and
truffles. By and large, in reading the menus out of context, you would
not know that they were coming from the world’s top eateries or that
they would be so expensive. The establishments clearly are able to
charge the amounts they do as a result of their reputations for
continually and reliably serving up a perfect experience. I say
experience because everything has to be perfect – the food, the wine,
the service and the ambience.
notice that these restaurants use certain “themes” in their menus…
food is a theme. Here the equivalent would be Romsonian lamb or
Specific varieties of food get emphasised – even when the variety is not
(in my view) the best – bœuf Charolais appears more than once amongst
the top-tier restaurants. I would much rather eat Red Ruby, Hereford or
menus are not uncommon – you would have to have a lot of faith in the
chef to spend €200 or more on the menu when you do not know what you are
going to get!
there are multi-course gastronomic menus.
said, I am still not sure I understand what is the perfect menu. Here
I am going to break my rule of no questionnaires and ask you to let me
know what you like to eat the most. Extensive piloting has shown that a
simple question such as “What is your favourite food?” does not work.
It generates responses such as “Depends on the circumstances.”, “Depends
on the time of year.”, “Depends on my mood.” or “I like all food.” So I
am going to ask you to play Dessert Island Dishes….